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  • 枇杷的种植技术!
  • 本站编辑:杭州余杭赛金果枇杷研究所有限公司发布日期:2020-02-10 20:15 浏览次数:
    枇杷是我国南方特有的一种亚热带常绿果树,而大果型品种则是我国枇杷发展的重点。要生产优质大果枇杷,搞好花果管理工作是其重中之重。
最近后台有朋友留言,想了解枇杷的种植技术,今天赛金小编做了相关知识的整理。现将枇杷部分种植技术介绍如下:
一、促花措施1.早施、重施壮果促梢肥在我国南方部分地区夏梢是枇杷的结果母枝,因此培养优良的夏梢是保证枇杷连年丰产的措施之一。施肥时间在早/中熟品种采收后,晚熟品种采收前的5月中旬到6月上旬,具体施用量(按每666.7平方米产果1500千克计算)以每666.7平方米施腐熟农家肥1500千克,尿素45千克,过磷酸钙60千克。以挖浅沟土施为宜。2.拉枝、拿枝、扭梢在7~8月份,夏梢基本停止生长时拉枝、拿枝,拉枝角度以拉成与主枝90度角为宜。对部分长势过旺的采用扭梢促花。3.断根控水、保持土壤适当干旱大果枇杷幼龄旺长树或植株生长旺盛的枇杷园,当夏梢有1/3叶片转绿叶,对树冠下的土层浅中耕,尝试以20~30厘米为宜,以露出租根为适度,切断大部分细根和少数骨干根。在8~9月份停止灌水,保持干燥,以限制夏梢生长,加速叶片转绿,增加地上部分的营养积累,有利于花芽早分化。
4.药物控制在7月上旬和8月上旬各喷1次15%多效唑500倍液或300倍液的PBO促控剂。此方法可有效控制新梢生长,促进花芽形成和提高花质。5.环割、环剥和倒贴皮该方法是控梢促花有效的方法,但技术要求较高,实施时间也很严格,如措施不当很容易造成无花、落叶或植株枯死,且只适用于难成花品种或过旺树。环割一般在7月上中旬,深度以割穿树皮而不伤及本质部为度。一般骨干枝环割3~4圈,小枝割1~2圈,每圈间隔1厘米。采用环剥和倒贴皮则要对伤口消毒,并用塑料薄膜包扎保湿。
二、疏花疏果1.疏花分为疏花穗和疏花蕾。疏花穗的时间在9月至10月上中旬,主要疏除衰弱枝上的花穗、小花穗、有病虫害的花穗及过多花穗,使营养枝与花枝的比例为2∶1或1∶1。对早熟品种宜轻疏,晚熟品种则重疏,强旺树轻疏,老弱树重疏。疏蕾则在花穗上的小花枝散开时(10~11月份),以疏除花穗下部的1~2个小花枝和花穗上部的穗尖,只留中部的2~3个花枝即可。在有冻害的地区,不宜疏蕾。
2.疏果时间以在残花落尽时的2月份(有冻害的地区待气温完全回升后进行),早熟品种宜早疏。留果量按大果型品种每穗留1~2个果,中小果型品种每穗留3~4个果。总之,中、晚熟品种和旺树旺枝多留,反之则少留或不留,使叶果比保持在5~8∶1,每666.7平方米产量控制在1500千克左右。三、果实膨大技术在疏果后进行,时间以2月份为最好,建议用四川兰月公司生产的枇杷专用膨大剂100倍液(即每小瓶20毫升对水2千克)浸果。使用该药剂处理后可明显提高枇杷果重和品质,但不宜使用赤霉素浸果。
四、套袋在枇杷果实膨大处理后,对树冠和果实全丽喷1次杀虫、杀菌剂,待药液干后即可套袋。果袋可自己买白纸自制,也可购专用果袋,但不宜使用旧报纸。套袋要点:①套袋前必须喷药,可用70%甲基托布津800倍或10%。世高3000倍加浓52.25%地乐1000倍再加0.25%磷酸二氢钾溶液,喷药均匀周到。②喷药后必须在5天内套完,未套完的或遇雨时需要重喷药液再套袋。③在露水干后才可套袋,且避开高温天气的中午进行。④雨后不能马上套袋,需等气温基本回升后才可进行。
Loquat is a special subtropical evergreen fruit tree in South China, and large fruit type is the key point of loquat development in China. In order to produce high quality loquat, the most important thing is to do well in flower and fruit management.
Recently, a friend left a message in the background. He wanted to know about loquat planting technology. Today, SAIJIN compiled relevant knowledge. Now, some planting techniques of loquat are introduced as follows:
1、 Early and heavy application of fruit strengthening and shoot promoting fertilizer is the fruiting mother branch of loquat in some areas of South China. Therefore, cultivating good summer shoots is one of the measures to ensure the loquat's continuous high yield. The fertilization time is from the middle of May to the first ten days of June after the early / middle maturity varieties are collected, and the specific application amount (calculated as 1500 kg of fruit per 666.7 square meters) is 1500 kg of rotten farmyard manure, 45 kg of urea and 60 kg of superphosphate per 666.7 square meters. It is better to excavate shallow ditch for soil construction. 2. From July to August, when the summer shoots basically stop growing, the angle of branch pulling should be 90 degrees to the main branches. For the part with excessive growth, twist the tip to promote flowers. 3. Cutting roots to control water, keeping soil suitable and dry. When there are 1 / 3 leaves turning green in summer shoot, try to plough the soil layer under the crown with 20-30cm, and expose the rented roots as appropriate. Cut off most of the fine roots and a few bone dry roots. From August to September, stop irrigation and keep dry, so as to limit the growth of summer shoots, accelerate the green turning of leaves, increase the nutrition accumulation of the aboveground parts, and facilitate the early differentiation of flower buds.
 
4. In the first ten days of July and the first ten days of August, 15% Paclobutrazol 500 times liquid or 300 times liquid PbO promoter was sprayed once respectively. This method can effectively control the growth of new shoots, promote flower bud formation and improve flower quality. 5. Circumcision, girdling and back sticking are the most effective methods to control the shoot and promote the flower, but the technical requirements are high and the implementation time is also very strict. If the measures are not appropriate, it is easy to cause no flower, fallen leaf or withered plant, and they are only suitable for difficult flower varieties or excessive trees. Circumcision usually occurs in the first and middle of July. The depth of circumcision is to cut through the bark without damaging the essence. Generally, the backbone branches are cut in 3-4 circles, and the twigs are cut in 1-2 circles with an interval of 1 cm. The wound should be disinfected and covered with plastic film to keep moisture.
 
2、 Flower thinning and fruit thinning 1. Flower thinning can be divided into flower thinning ear and flower bud. From September to the first and middle of October, the time of ear thinning was mainly from weak branches to weak branches, florets, flower spikes with diseases and insect pests and excessive flower spikes, so that the ratio of vegetative branches to flower branches was 2:1 or 1:1. Early varieties should be light sparse, late varieties should be heavy sparse, strong and strong trees light sparse, old and weak trees heavy sparse. When the floret branches on the spikelet are scattered (October to November), only 2-3 florets in the middle part of the spikelet can be left. In areas with frost damage, it is not suitable to loosen buds.
 
2. The fruit thinning time is in February when the flowers are exhausted (after the temperature rises completely in frost damaged areas), and the early maturing varieties are suitable for early thinning. According to the amount of fruit, 1-2 fruits per panicle for large fruit type varieties and 3-4 fruits per panicle for small and medium fruit type varieties. In a word, the middle and late maturing varieties and the flourishing branches of Wangshu keep more, on the contrary, they keep less or not, so that the leaf fruit ratio is kept at 5-8:1, and the yield per 666.7 square meters is controlled at about 1500 kg. 3、 The fruit expansion technology is carried out after fruit thinning, and February is the best time. It is suggested to use 100 times liquid of loquat expansion agent (i.e. 2 kg of 20 ml water per vial) produced by Sichuan lanyue company to soak the fruit. The weight and quality of loquat fruit can be significantly improved by using the agent, but it is not suitable to use gibberellin to soak the fruit.
 
4、 After puffing loquat fruit, spray insecticidal and fungicide once to crown and fruit Quanli, and then bagging can be done when the liquid is dry. Fruit bags can be self-made with white paper or special fruit bags, but old newspapers are not suitable. Key points of bagging: ① spray before bagging, and use 800 times or 10% of 70% tolbutine. Shigao 3000 times, 52.25% dile 1000 times and 0.25% potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution, spray evenly and thoughtfully. ② After spraying, it must be covered within 5 days. If it is not covered or in case of rain, it is necessary to re spray the solution and then cover the bag. ③ After the dew is dry, bagging can be carried out at noon in high temperature weather. ④ It is not allowed to cover bags immediately after rain. It can only be carried out after the temperature basically rises.