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  • 农业技术:枇杷采收后该如何管理?
  • 本站编辑:杭州余杭赛金果枇杷研究所有限公司发布日期:2019-12-15 11:56 浏览次数:
枇杷,别名:芦橘、金丸、芦枝,蔷薇科、枇杷属植物,枇杷原产中国东南部,因叶子形状似琵琶乐器而名,其花可入药。花期10一12月,果期第二年5—6月。枇杷与大部分果树不同,在秋天或初冬开花,果子在春天至初夏成熟,比其他水果都早,因此被称是“果木中独备四时之气者”。
 
农业技术:枇杷采收后该如何管理?
    枇杷果实成熟时正当初夏水果淡季,且果形美观,果肉柔软多汁,酸甜可口,风味佳,营养丰富,为度淡鲜果佳品,深受人们喜爱。
 
        枇杷成熟于初夏,高温多雨季节,容易腐烂,不耐贮藏。在常温下存放20多天,果实就会全部腐烂,给枇杷的销售造成很大的压力。因此,要及时适时采收。那么枇杷如何采收、采收后又该如何管呢?智慧农业网给大家总结了一下几点:
 
枇杷要适时采收 
 
       枇杷采收时间应在温度较低的上午、下午或阴天,绝不能在下雨天或高温烈日下采收。
 
       枇杷的花期长,果实成熟期不一致,必须分批采收。枇杷果实没有后熟作用,全面着色后品质基本上不会提高,但稍微早采品质就会显著降低,所以要适期采收。枇杷充分成熟前15~20天即开始转色,由黄绿色转黄再转橙红或橙黄色。适宜采收期应是果皮充分着色,呈现出该品种完全成熟时所固有的色泽时,或稍延后3~5天采收。如需远运或加工罐头的果实则可适当提前,约八九成熟时采收。
 
农业技术:枇杷采收后该如何管理?
采收技术
 
  采摘技术好坏,直接影响到采后品质。枇杷果皮上有一层茸毛,稍加碰擦果皮即会受伤变色,采收时要特别小心、细致。必须备有“人”字形采果梯、采果钩和采果篮等工具,采收时由下而上、由外向内顺次进行。采摘时手执果穗基部剪下或折断,手指不接触果面,要轻拿轻放,以防茸毛腊粉脱落或果皮受损。所有盛放器具内壁均应平整光滑,用碎纸或布做衬垫物。枇杷采收后,应挑出伤果、裂果、病虫果、畸形果和不合规格果,然后按果实大小分级包装。技术运输到销售地,运输要特别注意途中的环境温度变化小、通风、换气。采用冷链系统,在冷藏、运输、销售一系列过程中全部保持枇杷的环境温度早在1-5℃。
 
枇杷采收后的管理
 
及时修剪、除草
        采收后的夏季修剪是枇杷最重要的一次修剪,宜早不宜迟。采果后枇杷的细弱枝、病虫枝、枯枝及时剪除。对粗壮的枝条则要进行短截,以促发出壮实的夏梢。同时进行疏梢,对夏季抽发的新梢应保留2~3个壮实的新梢,其余抽生过多的新梢可从基部流除。
 
       清除枇杷院内的杂草,以防杂草与枇杷争肥争水。清除杂草后要把修剪后的枯枝烂叶清理掉,不能留在园内。
 
园区注意排水
 
        枇杷采摘后恰逢梅雨季节,要结合生态果园建设进行整园,减少水土流失。梯田种植园要清挖梯土内侧排水沟,防止积水烂根。7月上旬出梅后,常出现季节性干旱,此时正是枇杷花芽分化期,要注意抗旱供水,并用稻草、油菜秆覆盖树盘,以提高抗旱能力,降低表土温差。
 
施肥管理
 
        枇杷采后应重施基肥,培养健壮的夏梢,促进花芽分化。一般采果结束前10~15天施肥,肥料以有机肥为主,结合施化肥。产果20公斤左右的植株,可施鸡鸭粪10公斤或饼肥2~3公斤,加沼肥20公斤,并增施钙镁磷肥1公斤。
 
农业技术:枇杷采收后该如何管理?
病虫害防治
 
       枇杷在高温、积水、高湿的条件下最容易发生枝叶病害,尤其是斑点落叶病、枝干腐烂病的防治。枇杷上除了病害还有虫害的发生,枇杷采摘后要做好病虫害的防治工作。
 
枝干腐烂病
 
        在排水防渍的基础上于主干和主枝上刷石灰或涂1:2:10波尔多液,同时可在树冠喷0.5%石灰倍量式波尔多液进行预防。若发现枝干有裂皮、腐烂病状,可先修刮病部后涂药液,再喷树干和树冠。
 
枇杷黄毛虫
 
        黄毛虫虫卵散产于嫩叶背面,孵出的初龄幼虫群集,可人工摘叶片捕杀。二龄后的幼虫分散为害,应喷20%杀灭菊酯2000倍液防治。
Loquat, also known as Luju, Jinwan and Luzhi, belongs to Rosaceae and loquat. Loquat is native to Southeast China. It is named for its leaf shape like a lute instrument, and its flower can be used as medicine. The flowering period is from October to December, and the fruiting period is from May to June in the second year. Loquat is different from most fruit trees. It blooms in autumn or early winter. Its fruit ripens from spring to early summer, earlier than other fruits. Therefore, loquat is known as "the only one with four seasons in fruit trees".
 
Agricultural Technology: how to manage loquat after harvesting?
 
Loquat fruit is in the off-season of early summer when it is ripe, and it has beautiful shape, soft and juicy pulp, sweet and sour taste, good flavor and rich nutrition. It is a good product of fresh and light fruit, which is deeply loved by people.
 
Loquat is mature in early summer, high temperature and rainy season, easy to rot, not resistant to storage. When stored at room temperature for more than 20 days, the fruits will all rot, which will cause great pressure on Loquat sales. Therefore, it is necessary to harvest in time. So how to harvest loquat, how to manage after harvest? The intelligent agriculture network summarizes the following points:
Loquat should be picked timely
Loquat should be harvested in the morning, afternoon or cloudy days with low temperature, and never in rainy days or hot sun.
Loquat has a long flowering period and different fruit maturity, so it must be harvested in batches. Loquat fruit has no post ripening effect, and the quality will not be improved after full coloring, but the quality will be significantly reduced after a little early harvesting, so it is necessary to harvest in proper time. The color of loquat begins to turn from yellow green to yellow and then to orange red or orange yellow 15-20 days before it is fully mature. The suitable harvest time is when the peel is fully colored, showing the inherent color of the variety when it is fully mature, or slightly delayed for 3-5 days. If it is necessary to transport or process the canned fruit far, it can be harvested in advance, about 89 years.
Agricultural Technology: how to manage loquat after harvesting?
Harvesting technology
Picking technology directly affects the quality after picking. There is a layer of fluff on the skin of loquat fruit. If you rub the skin slightly, it will be damaged and discolored. You should be very careful and careful when harvesting. Tools such as "herringbone" fruit ladder, fruit picking hook and fruit picking basket must be provided, and the picking shall be carried out from bottom to top, from outside to inside in sequence. When picking, the base of the ear should be cut or broken, and the fingers should not touch the surface of the fruit, so as to prevent the fluffy wax powder from falling off or the peel from being damaged. The inner wall of all containers shall be flat and smooth, with shredded paper or cloth as pad. After loquat harvest, the damaged, cracked, diseased, deformed and substandard fruits should be picked out and packed according to the size of the fruits. When the technology is transported to the place of sale, special attention shall be paid to the small change of ambient temperature, ventilation and air change during transportation. With cold chain system, the environmental temperature of loquat was kept as early as 1-5 ℃ in the process of refrigeration, transportation and sales.
Management of loquat after harvest
Timely pruning and weeding
The summer pruning after harvest is the most important pruning of loquat, which should be done sooner rather than later. After fruit picking, the thin and weak branches, pest branches and dead branches of loquat should be cut off in time. The thick branches should be cut short to promote the strong summer shoots. At the same time, two or three strong shoots should be kept for the summer shoots, and the rest of the excessive shoots can be removed from the base.
Remove weeds in loquat yard to prevent weeds from competing with loquat for fertilizer and water. After weed removal, the pruned dead branches and rotten leaves shall be removed, and they shall not be left in the garden.
Pay attention to drainage in the park
Loquat picking coincides with the plum rain season. It is necessary to integrate the ecological orchard construction to reduce soil erosion. The drainage ditch inside the terraced soil shall be cleared in the terraced planting garden to prevent ponding and rotten roots. In the first ten days of July, after plum blossom, there is often a seasonal drought. At this time, it is the flower bud differentiation stage of loquat. Attention should be paid to drought resistance and water supply, and straw and Rape Stalk should be used to cover the tree tray, so as to improve the drought resistance ability and reduce the surface soil temperature difference.
Fertilization management
Loquat should be fertilized again after harvest to cultivate strong summer shoots and promote flower bud differentiation. Generally, fertilizer is applied 10-15 days before the end of fruit picking, mainly organic fertilizer, combined with chemical fertilizer. For plants with fruit yield of about 20kg, 10kg of chicken and duck manure or 2kg of cake fertilizer, 20kg of biogas fertilizer and 1kg of calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer can be applied.
Agricultural Technology: how to manage loquat after harvesting?
Pest control
Loquat is most prone to branch and leaf diseases under the conditions of high temperature, water and humidity, especially the control of leaf spot and stem rot. In addition to the diseases, there are also insect pests on loquat. After picking loquat, we should do a good job in pest control.
Stem rot
Brush lime or apply 1:2:10 Bordeaux solution to the trunk and main branches on the basis of drainage and water proofing, and spray 0.5% lime multiple Bordeaux solution to the crown for prevention. If the branches are found to have split skin and rotten disease, they can be scraped first, then coated with liquid medicine, and then sprayed with trunk and crown.
Loquat yellow caterpillar
The eggs of the yellow caterpillar are scattered on the back of the tender leaves, and the hatchling larvae can be collected and killed manually. For the second instar larvae, 20% pyrethroid 2000 times solution should be sprayed.