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  • 枇杷秋季管理技术要点
  • 本站编辑:杭州余杭赛金果枇杷研究所有限公司发布日期:2019-11-18 19:52 浏览次数:
秋季枇杷生产管理,是全年枇杷生产中的重要环节之一,特别是枇杷生产的次适宜区的栽培区域。秋季既是枇杷秋梢生长期,又是花芽发育期,故管理工作要尽力围绕有利于促进花芽能良好的发育和推迟开花;避开次适宜区的冻害;还能抑制枇杷秋梢的抽发和生长而进行。主要抓好以下几项工作。 Loquat production management in autumn is one of the important links in loquat production throughout the year, especially the cultivation area of the sub suitable area for loquat production. Autumn is not only the growth period of loquat autumn shoots, but also the development period of flower buds. Therefore, the management should try to focus on promoting the good development of flower buds and delaying flowering, avoiding the frost damage in the sub suitable area, and inhibiting the extraction and growth of loquat autumn shoots. We will focus on the following tasks. 一、枇杷晾根。在开花前结合施花前肥时,耙开根部土壤10~15厘米左右深的土层,让露出的根系晾晒10~15天,这样截断了部分细根,达到抑制秋梢的生长,然后施肥覆土。 I. loquat root drying. Before flowering, rake the soil layer about 10-15 cm deep in the root soil and let the exposed roots dry for 10-15 days, so as to cut off some fine roots and inhibit the growth of autumn shoots, and then apply fertilizer to cover the soil. 二、枇杷施肥。这次肥料以有机肥为主,氮、磷、钾结合。株施腐熟的栏肥15~20公斤或饼肥1.5~2公斤,并搭配三元复合肥0.2~0.25公斤;也可施有机无机复混肥1.5~2.0公斤。这样可促发新根,健壮树冠,并能促进花芽发育充实,提高花芽的素质,推迟开花,延长开花期,从而增强树体自身和花果的抗寒抗冻能力,为翌年枇杷丰产打下坚实的基础。此项工作要求在9月底枇杷现蕾前完成。 Second, loquat fertilization. This time, the main fertilizer is organic fertilizer, which combines nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. It can be applied with 15-20 kg of rotten fertilizer, 1.5-2 kg of cake fertilizer, 0.2-0.25 kg of ternary compound fertilizer, and 1.5-2.0 kg of organic-inorganic compound fertilizer. In this way, it can promote the development of new roots, strengthen the crown, enrich the development of flower buds, improve the quality of flower buds, delay the flowering and extend the flowering period, so as to enhance the cold resistance and frost resistance of trees and flowers and fruits, and lay a solid foundation for the next year's loquat yield. This work is required to be completed before loquat buds appear at the end of September. 三、枇杷疏梢。为了减少养分的消耗,使养分集中到基础好的花穗上,同时使树体积累更多的养分,提高树体的抗寒能力,也为翌年开花结果贮备充足的营养。1、疏去密生枝、衰弱枝、病虫枝,最好保留枝粗叶茂的夏梢花穗枝。2、若有小量的秋梢抽发,也要及时地疏去。3、可直接使用“促花王2号”,控制秋梢抽发,让树体的生长机能向生殖机能转化,为来年的丰收打下基础。 Third, loquat thinning. In order to reduce the consumption of nutrients, concentrate the nutrients on the flowers with good foundation, accumulate more nutrients in the tree volume, improve the cold resistance of the tree body, and reserve sufficient nutrients for the next year's flowers and fruits. 1. The dense branches, weak branches and disease and insect branches should be sparsely removed, and it is better to keep the summer flower spike branches with thick leaves. 2. If there is a small amount of autumn treetops, they should also be removed in time. 3. It can be used directly to control the autumn treetop pumping, so as to transform the growth function of the tree into the reproductive function, and lay the foundation for the harvest of the next year. 四、枇杷防病治虫 IV. loquat disease control and insect control (一)枇杷防病 (I) loquat disease prevention 1、枇杷灰斑病:近年来此病危害枇杷越来越严重,使新梢不能展叶甚至枯死;蕾枯花烂,严重时整个花穗枯死。各地果农要高度重视该病的防治。尤其是上年危害严重的果园要严加防范,在花穗出现之前喷药2~3次。防治药剂可选用:50%灰网可湿性粉剂1000倍,或25%扑瑞丰悬浮剂800倍,或68.75%易保水分散粒剂1500倍,喷药时适当加入“新高脂膜”,可有效增强药效。 1. Loquat gray spot disease: in recent years, loquat is more and more seriously damaged by this disease, so that the new shoots can not develop leaves or even die; the buds are withered and the flowers are rotten, and the whole flower ear dies when it is serious. All fruit farmers should attach great importance to the prevention and control of the disease. In particular, the orchards that were seriously damaged in the previous year should be strictly prevented, and spray 2-3 times before the appearance of spikes. The control agents can be selected as follows: 1000 times of 50% gray net wettable powder, 800 times of 25% perrifeng suspension, or 1500 times of 68.75% Yi Bao water dispersible granule. When spraying, the "new high lipid film" can be added properly, which can effectively enhance the efficacy. 2、枇杷枝干腐烂病,该病发病重时造成植株死亡,故要在发病初期就要抓好防治工作。发现病斑及时刮除,然后涂“护树将军”于树体,使病斑迅速干枯脱落,并保护树体健康恢复。 2. Loquat stem rot disease, which causes plant death when the disease is serious, so we should pay attention to the prevention and control work in the early stage of the disease. In case of any disease spot, it shall be scraped off in time, and then painted with "general tree protection" on the tree body, so that the disease spot can quickly dry and fall off, and protect the health of the tree body. (二)枇杷治虫 (II) loquat insect control 1、枇杷黄毛虫:该虫危害叶片,受害后影响叶片的光合作用和树体的养分积累。药剂可选用:1.8%虫螨杀星乳油3000~4000倍,或5%锐劲特乳油1000~1500倍,或2.5%功夫乳油2000~3000倍等。 1. Loquat yellow caterpillar: it damages the leaves and Affects Photosynthesis and nutrient accumulation of the leaves. The medicament can be selected as follows: 1.8% insecticidal emulsifiable concentrate 3000-4000 times, or 5% Regent emulsifiable concentrate 1000-1500 times, or 2.5% Kungfu emulsifiable concentrate 2000-3000 times, etc. 2、舟形毛虫:该虫食量大,危害重,必须十分注意检查,做到有虫必治。防治药剂同上。 2. Scaphoid caterpillars: this insect has a large amount of food and serious harm. It must be inspected very carefully to ensure that there are insects that must be treated. The control agent is the same as above.